VI: Digestive System
Task # 8
1. Take as many snapshots as you need to show the following structures associated with the upper digestive system. Include 5 of the following as labels on your diagram:
  • liver
  • gall bladder
  • esophagus
  • thyroid gland
  • pancreas
  • cardiac stomach
  • pyloric stomach
  • mesentery

2. Take snapshots to show the structures associated with the lower digestive system. Include 5 of the following as labels on your diagram:
  • pyloris
  • duodenum
  • small intestine
  • colon
  • caecum
  • rectum
  • anus
  • spleen
  • pancreas


3. Construct a chart of 10 structures or organs listed in #'s 1 and 2. Include 3 columns with the following headings: Structure, Description(what does the structure look like/), Function(s). Fill in the chart/conduct research if you need to.
large and brown in color
removes toxins
long tube
transfers food from the mouth to stomach
is a gland
produces insulin and glucagon
Small Intestine
is made up of the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum
digests food in three sections
gall bladder
sac like structure located under the liver
stores bile
is spherical in shape
deals with red blood cells
is coiled like tubes
helps absorb vitamins
suspends the ileam from the abdomen
lets the small intestine move
Pyloric Stomach
The posterior end of the stomach
allows food to enter the stomach
Cardiac Stomach
The end of the stomach that allows food to enter
allows food to enter the stomach

4.Construct a chart including the following terms associated with the digestive system. Include 3 columns with the following headings: Structure, Description(what it looks like), Function(what it does).
  • mucosa
  • villi
  • lumen
  • rugae
  • meconium

linings of mostly endodermal origin
involved in secretion and absorption
tiny finger-like projections in the small intestine
increase the absorptive area and the surface area of the intestinal wall
inside space of the intestine
holds things inside the intestine
a series of ridges produced by folding of the wall of an organ
provide the stomach with increased surface area for food
earliest stool of the fetal pigs
almost sterile

5. How many lobes does the liver have? Explain The liver has four main lobes. The right and left lateral and the right and left medial.

6. What is the relationship between the liver and the gall bladder? The gall bladder is the storage sac for the bile that is secreted by the liver.

7. Sequence the three parts of the small intestine? Differentiate between the function(s) of each section. There are 3 sections to the small intestine. The duodeum, jejunum, and the ileum. The Duodenum is the first portion of the small intestine. It leads away from the pyloric end of the stomach. The jejunum and the lleum are the last two regions of the small intestine. They can't be split up. These two section lead to the large intestine.

8. Our colon looks like an upside down U. Compare to the pig's - What's the difference? The difference is that the pig has a spiral colon and our colon looks like and upside down U.

9. What is another name for the caecum? How has the caecum changed over time? Discuss evolutionary changes.
10. Differentiate between a complete and incorrect digestive system. Does the pig have a complete or an incomplete digestive system? How do you know?
11. Sequence the movement of food through the digestive system. Explain in your own words what happens to the food along the way.

12. Compare and contrast the digestive systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig. All four animals have a complete digestive system. They all have a separate mouth and anus. The starfish is very unique with its stomach. It has a cardiac and pyloric stomach, so does the pig. The clam is unique that its intestine is underneath the heart. Also its waste empties into the mantle cavity and the water takes it out through the siphon. The crayfish has a large yellowish digestive gland which secretes enzymes and stores food.