Pig Dissection
Part I.
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I. External Anatomy


A. Task #1
1. Include the following photos:
  • lateral view
  • ventral view
2. Select five of the following terms to place on the lateral view photo:
  • dorsal
  • ventral
  • anterior
  • posterior
  • pectoral
  • pelvic
  • head
  • trunk
  • thorax
The Lateral View
[[image:Lateral_view:labeled:helman:kerr.jpg]]
This is a photo of the lateral view of the pig. In this photo, we labeled trunk, dorsal, anterior, pelvic, head, pectoral, thorax, ventral, and posterior. We've labeled all of the terms because we are "specialists" in the external anatomy of the fetal pig.

3. Place the following terms on the ventral view photo:
  • abdomen
  • medial
  • caudal
  • cranial
  • umbilical cord
  • mammary papillae

Ventral View
[[image:Ventral_view:labeled:helman:kerr.jpg]]
This is a photo of the ventral view. In this photo, we have labeled the abdomen, cranial, medial, caudal, umbilical cord and mammary papillae.

4. Create a glossary of terms with definitions. Include the following terms in your glossary:
  • Terms in step 2 above
  • Terms in step 3 above
  • proximal
  • distal
  • lateral
  • left
  • right

Glossary
Dorsal- The dorsal is located toward the back of the pig.
Ventral- The ventral is located toward the underside of the pig.
Anterior- The anterior is also known as the cranial. It is located toward the head of the pig.
Posterior- The posterior is also known as the caudal. It is located toward the tail of the pig.
Pectoral- The pectoral is the chest or shoulder area of the pig.
Pelvic- The pelvic is the hip area of the pig.
Head- The head is located at the front of the body and contains the mouth, jaws, snout, external nostrils, eyes, and external ears.
Trunk- The trunk is the pig's main body part. The legs of the pig project from this body part.
Thorax- The thorax is the chest of the pig.
Abdomen- The abdomen of the pig lies between the thorax and the pelvic. It can also be known as the belly.
Medial- Medial refers to the area close to the center of the pig's body.
Caudal- The caudal is refering to the tail.
Cranial- The cranial is refering to the head.
Umbilical cord- The umbillical cord is the cord projecting from the ventral surface of the pig. This cord connects the fetus to it's mother.
Mammary papillae- Mammary papillae are small nipples that will eventually turn into teats for female pigs.
Proximal- The proximal is toward the attached end of a structure. This is also known as where the appendages join the body.
Distal- The distal is toward the free end of a structure. This is also known as the furthest structure from where the appendages join the body.
Lateral- The lateral is known as the side of the pig.
Left- Left refers to the left side of the pig.
Right- Right refers to the right side of the pig.


5. HOMEWORK: Write a story describing the external anatomy of the pig. Use at least ten of the terms in the glossary above. You are required to use distal and proximal in your description.

B. Task #2
1. Include a photo of the pig's head and label the following structures:
  • pinnae
  • eye
  • nictitating membrane
  • eyelids

The Head
[[image:the_head_labeled:helman:kerr.jpg]]
This is a picture of the head of the pig. In this picture we have labeled the eyelids and the pinnae.

The Eye
[[image:the_eye:labeled:helman:kerr.jpg]]
This is a picture of the head and the eye. In this photo, we have labeled the eye and the nictitating membrane.

2. Include a photo showing the structures that distinguish a female pig. Label the following:
  • urogenital opening
  • urogenital papillae
  • anus

The Female Pig
femalelabeledhelmankerr.jpg
This is a photo of the female pig. In this photo, we have labeled the urogenital opening, the anus, and the urogenital papillae.

3. Include a photo that distinguishes a male pig. Include the following labels:
  • urogenital opening
  • scrotal sacs

The Male Pig
malelabeledhelmankerr.jpg
This is a photo of the male pig. In this photo, we have labeled the urogenital opening and the scrotal sacs.

4. Include a photo of a dissected umbilical cord. Label:
  • artery
  • vein
The Umbilical Cord
the_umbilical_cord.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the umbilical cord. In this photo, we have labeled the vein(blue) and the artery(red).

5. Include a photo showing joints and structures of the pig's legs. Label the following:
  • ankle
  • knee
  • wrist
  • elbow
  • toe

The Legs
7.kerr_and_helman.pig_legs2.png
This is a picture of the pigs legs. We have labeled the ankle, elbow, wrist, knee, and toe.

6. Create a glossary of terms with definitions. Include the following terms in your glossary:
  • terms in #'s 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

Glossary
Pinnae- Pinnae are the external ears of the pig.
Eye- They eyes are located on the pigs head and are used for the pig to see.
Nictitating Membrane- The nictitating membrane is the translucent third eye lid.
Eyelids- The eyelids are the features that cover and protect the pigs eyes.
Urogenital Opening- Urogenital opening is the opening just ventral to the anus.
Urogenital Papillae- The urogenital papillae is located ventral to the anus and the tail.
Anus- The anus of the pig is the opening at the end of the digestive system where wastes exit the body.
Scrotal Sacs- The scrotal sacs are located at the posterior end of the male pigs. These scrotal sacs hold the testes of the male pigs.
Artery- They are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Vein- They are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
Ankle- The ankle joint is formed where the foot and the leg meet.
Knee- The knee is the lower extremity joint connecting the femur, patella, and the tibia.
Wrist- The wrist is located right above the hoof of the pig.
Elbow- The elbow is the bony structure on the posterior surface of the forelimb near the junction of the body.
Toe- The toes are longer bones in the hind feet. Also called metatarsals.

7. Research and discuss the function of the umbilical veins and arteries(distinguish between the two).
The umbilical vein is the vein is located between the placenta and the fetus. The purpose of the umbilical veins is to transport oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus. The purpose of the umbilical arteries is to transport de-oxygenated blood from the placenta to the fetus.

8. Do both sexes have mammary papillae? Explain.
Yes both sexes have mammary papilae. The females excrete milk to feed their young and the males have no purpose.

9. How many mammary papillae are present in the fetal pig?
There are 4-9 mammary papillae present in the fetal pig.

10. Compare and contrast the fore limb and the hind limb of the pig to the fore limb and hind limb of the human. Include presence of joints and the movement of the limbs in your description.
The pigs limbs have the same joints as humans. Both the pig and humans have a wrist and an elbow. These joints let them bend and move their limbs. On their hind limbs they both have a knee and an ankle which let them bend and move their limbs. A difference is that humans have fingers and toes on the ends of their limbs and pigs have toes but less than humans.

11. Compare and contrast the external anatomy of the clam, crayfish, starfish and pig.
The external anatomy of the clam and crayfish are hard, and the external anatomy of the pig and starfish are soft. The clam has hard shells and the crayfish has a hard exoskeleton. The starfish is soft and only has spines on the outside. The pig is soft on the outside also.


References...
www.uvm.edu/~dneher/biodiversity/9_Vertebrates.pdf
http://js082.k12.sd.us/My_Classes/Advanced_Biology/Pig_Dissection/fetal_pig_glossary.htm
http://books.google.com/books?id=3nrGsP7RvNMC&pg=PA9&dq=urogenital+papillae+of+fetal+pig#PPT1,M1
http://www.biologycorner.com/worksheets/pig_dissect2.html



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II.Mouth Anatomy

Task # 3= 1. Take a photo of the internal mouth. Include both the upper and lower jaws. Place 6 of the following labels on your diagram. It is mandatory to place the first three labels.
  • epiglottis
  • glottis
  • gullet
  • nasopharnyx
  • soft palate
  • hard palate
  • nare
  • tongue
  • taste buds
  • vestibule
  • uvula

The mouth

7.kerr_and_helman.pig_mouth.png
This is a picture of the mouth. We have labeled the nares, glottis, soft and hard palate, epiglottis, and gullet.

2. Make a glossary of the terms found above. Include a definition that explains the function(s) of the structures, openings, etc.
epiglottis- The epiglottis is a thin elastic structure located at the root of the tongue. This structure folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea when the pig is swallowing.
glottis-The glottis is the opening between vocal cords at the upper part of the larynx
gullet- The gullet is also known as the esophagus of the pig. Differing from humans, in the gullet, the food is pushed forward creating what is known as peristalsis.
nasopharnyx- The nasopharnyx carries air from the nostrils to the trachea. It is a round opening above the epiglottis.
soft palate- The soft palate is the movable fold that consists of fibers enclosed in mucous membrane which is suspended from the rear of the hard plate. This palate closes off the nasal cavity from the oral cavity.
hard palate- The hard palate is the bony, hard anterior portion of the palate.
nare- The nares are the external nostrils of the pig.tongue- The tongue of the pig is located on the floor of the mouth and it mixes the food when the pig eats.
tongue-A skeletal muscle on the floor/bottom of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing.
taste buds- They are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, upper esophagus, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten.
vestibule- The area in between the teeth and lips.
uvula- Conic projection of the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate and is composed of connective tissue.

3. The glottis, gullet and epiglottis are located very close to each other. Explain the relationship between the structure and the openings.
The gullet is the tube where the food travels down to get to the stomach. The epiglottis covers the glottis so that food can not enter the trachea. The glottis is the space between the vocal chords. All of these structures help with transporting food so that it can be digested.

3. Discuss the tongue and the location of the taste buds. A picture and labels needs to be included.
The tongue is a muscular organ inside of the mouth. Taste buds are the small bumps that are located on the tongue.

The Tongue
[[image:tongue.labeled.helman:kerr.jpg]]

4. Which jaw(s) have teeth in the pig? When do the teeth start erupting?
The upper and lower jaws have teeth. The teeth start erupting while they are still in the mother's womb when they are still a fetus.

Task #4
1. Take a photo of the neck area showing the exposed salivary glands. Label the following:
  • parotid gland
  • submaxillary gland
  • Wharton's duct.

The Salivary Glands
salivary_glands.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg

2. Create a chart that has 4 columns. Include the following column headings:
  • Structure
  • Description(What the structure looks like)
  • Function(relate information:enzymes released/foods broken down/transports from/to, etc.)
Chart at bottom

3. Compare and contrast the mouth anatomy of the clam, crayfish, starfish and the pig.
The mouth anatomy of the crayfish and pig are similar in which they both have mandibles. The starfish and clam are similar because even though they both have mouths, they are different from the crayfish and the pig. The starfish uses its water vascular system to get nutrients. The clam has syphons that they use to suck things in.

Structure
Description
Function
Parotid Gland
This gland is the largest gland. It looks like chewed up bubble gum.
It secretes saliva through the Stensen ducts into the oral cavity.
Submaxillary Gland
This gland is the gland that looks kind of like a kidney bean, and it is
like skin/tan colored.
The serious cells produce salivary amylase that helps in the breakdown of starches in the mouth. Mucous cells secrete mucin which aids in the lubrication of the food bolus as it travels saliva.
Wharton's Duct
This duct is connected to the submaxillary gland and it leads to the
mouth. It is skin/tan colored.
It drains saliva from the salivary gland to the sublingual caruncle at the base of the tongue.

Resources:
www.upt.pitt.edu/ntress/Bio1_Lab_Manual_New/**fetal**_**pig**_digestive_intro. htm
http://www.wikipedia.org/
glossary/fetal_pig_glossary.html ||

III. Skinning the Pig

Task # 5
1. Include a photo of a partially skinned pig. Label the following:
  • skin
  • cutaneous maximus
  • fatty tissue

The skinned pig
skin.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of our skinned pig. In this photo, we have labeled the cutaneous maximus, fat tissue, and the skin.


The entire skinned pig
skin2.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the whole body of our pig. In this photo, you can see the front leg and the hind leg which is skinned. You can also see the head which is not skinned

2. How thick is the skin?
The skin is only about 1mm thick.

3. What attaches the skin to the body of the pig?
The Cutaneus Maximus attaches the skin to the body of the pig.

4. Discuss the functions of the pig's skin.
The pig's skin has many functions. One function is that it is a covering to protect the body. The skin also helps keep infection away from the pig. Last but not least, the skin also keeps the body warm.

5. Homework: Discuss the skinning process. Include the following in your discussion:
  • Outline of your procedure
  • Preferred techniques and tools
  • Reflect on techniques/tools that malfunctioned
  • Most outstanding piece of knowledge learned from skinning process.
6. Compare and contrast removing the outer covering of the clam, crayfish, starfish and the pig.
Removing the outer covering of the clam, crayfish, and starfish were much easier than removing the pig's. The starfish and clams were the easiest. For the starfish, you just had to make an incision on the ray and pull away the skin which was soft and easy to remove. For the clam, you just had to open the shells by just cutting the adductor muscles. The crayfish and pig were harder. The crayfish has a hard exoskeleton which was a little harder to remove. The pig has muscles that connect the skin to the body such as the cutaneus maximus.


IV Muscles

Task # 6

1. Create a 4 column chart with the following headings: Muscle Type, Description("what the muscle looks like"), Function and Example.
Include the following muscle types in the chart:
  • cardiac
  • smooth
  • striated

Muscle Type
Description
Function
Example
cardiac
They are red with black dots and white
strips.
This muscle makes up the wall of the
heart. It's function is to pump the blood.
The heart is the only cardiac muscle.
smooth
They are pink with white circles.
This muscle is found in the hollow walls
of the organs in the body except the heart.
It's function is that it regulates the flow of
blood in the arteries, expels urine from the
urinary bladder, and regulates the flow of
air through the lungs.
They are located in the stomach,
intestines, blood vessels, and the
urinary bladder.
striated
They have purple and white strips that
weave through each other.
Skeletal muscle tissue is named for its
locomotion because it is attached to bones.
They contain alternating light and dark bands
that are perpendicular to the long axes of the
fibers. They can be made to contract or relax
by voluntary control.
Striated muscles are skeletal. They
attach to tendons and occur in bundles
that attach to bones.

2. Create a glossary of terms associated with muscles. Along with the term include its definition and/or significance in the understanding of muscles. Include the following terms:
  • joint- The location at which two or more bones make contact.
  • extensor- Any muscle that opens a joint increasing the angle between components of a limb, such as straightening the knee or elbow and bening the wrist or spine. With the exception of the knee joint the movement is directed backward. This action is known as extension.
  • flexor- They close a joint and decrease the angle between limb components.
  • origin- The end of the muscle attached to the less rigid part of the skeleton.
  • insertion- The end attached to some part of the skeleton which moves when the muscle contracts.
  • belly- The thickened middle portion of the pig's body.
  • tendon- A tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension.
  • fascia- The soft tissue component of the connective tissue system that permeates the human body.
  • antagonistic pairs- Muscles that are found in pairs and consist of an extensor muscle and flexor muscle.
  • adductor- A muslce that pulls a body part toward the midline of the body.
  • abductor- A muscle that pulls a body part away from the midline of the body.
3. Take a photo of the exposed abdominal muscles. Label 2 of the following:
  • External oblique
  • Internal oblique
  • Transversus

External Oblique
external_oblique._labeled._helman.kerr.jpg
This muscle is the external oblique. As you can see, the muscles run horizontally across the pigs abdomen and body.

Internal Oblique
internal_oblique.labeled._helman.kerr.jpgInternal_oblique_2._labeled._helman.kerr.jpg
These are photos of the Internal Oblique. As you can see in these photos, the internal muscles run vertically down the pigs abdomen.

4. Take a photo of the circular muscle in the head. Label the muscle.

Circular Muscle
circular.helman.kerr.jpg cirucluar2.helman.kerrr.jpg
These are pictures of the circular muscle in the head which is also known as the masseter.

5. You are required to do either part a. or part b. of the the following:
a. Take a photo showing a pair of antagonistic pair of muscles in the front leg. (Make sure that you have separated the muscles to expose them). Label the muscles shown.

Antagonistic Pairs
7.kerr.muscles.png
This is a photo of antagonistic pair muscles. We have labeled the flexor which contracts and the extensor which relaxes.

b.Take a photo of an antagonistic pair of muscles in the back leg using a ventral view. (Make sure that you have separated the muscles to expose them). Label the muscles shown.

6. Separate, then take a photo of 2 different muscles that control the movement of the shoulder. Label the two muscles.
Members of the pig tutorial group are required to show 3 different muscles labeled.

Shoulder Muscles
shoulder._helman._kerr.jpg

7. Separate, then take a photo of 3 different muscles that control the movement of the hip. Label the three muscles.
Members of the pig tutorial group are required to show 5 muscles labeled.

The hip of the pig
7.kerr.pig_leg.png
This is a picture of the hip of the pig. We have labeled the gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris.

8. Separate and take a photo of an adductor muscle in the hind leg. Label the muscle.
Members of the tutorial group are required to separate and label 5 different muscles on the ventral side of the pig.

The adductor muscle
7.kerr.adductor.png
This is a picture of the adductor muscles in the hind leg of the pig.

9. Separate and take a photo of an abductor muscle in the hind leg. Label the muscle.

The abductor muscle
7.kerr.abductor.png
This is a picture of the abductor muscles in the hind leg of the pig.

10. Create a 4 column chart including 12 muscles found in the fetal pig. Column headings include: Muscle, Origin, Insertion, Function. Include a wide variety of muscles from all parts of the pig. Members of the muscles tutorial group are required to include 21 muscles in the chart.

Muscle
Origin
Insertion
Function
External Oblique
On the posterior ribs.
By means of an aponeurosis into the
linea alba.
It is the rotation of the torso, or it
constricts the abdomen.
Internal Oblique
Under the external oblique.
Into the Linea Alba, Xiphoid process,
and the inferior rib.
It compresses the abdomen.
Circular Muscle/Masseter
Behind and under the jaw,
zygomatic arch, and maxilla.
Coronoid process and the ramus of
mandible.
It allows the mouth to close.
Transversus
From the lumbodorsal fascia.
Along the linea alba by an
aponeurosis.
With the oblique, it constricts the
abdomen.
Adductor Muscle
On the anterior surface
of the pubis.
Medial lip of linea aspera on the
middle half of femur.
It adducts and flexes the thigh, and
may laterally rotate it at the hip.
Pectoralis Major
From the upper portion
of the sternum.
Into the proximal end of the humerus.
It acts to draw the forelimb towards
the chest.
Gluteus Maximus
On the gluteal surface of ilium,
lumbar, fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous
ligament.
Iliotibial tract of fascia lata, gluteal
tuberosity of femur.
It extends, abducts, and rotates the
thigh laterally.
Gracilis
Near the pubis and ischium.
Proximal end of the tibia.
It adducts the thigh.
Branchiocephalic
On the lambdoidal ridge
of the occipital bone and from the mastoid process.
Distal end of the humerus.
It flexes the foreleg.
Gluteus Medius
Under the gluteus maximus. It
is on the gluteal surface of ilium.
Into the proximal end of the femur.
It abducts the thigh.
Latissimus Dorsi
From the lumbar and some of
the last thoracic vertebrae and from the
lumbodorsal fascia.
By means of a tendon into the
proximal end of the humerus on
its medial face.
It moves the forelimb dorsally and cuadally.
Gastrocnemius
On the distal end of the femur.
Upon the heel bone by way of
the long, tough, Achilles Tendon
to the calcaneus.
It extends the foot.

11. Homework: Discuss your study of the muscles. Include the following in your discussion:
  • Tool/techniques that were successful in separating the muscles
  • Hardest part of studying muscles
  • The main function(s) of muscles
12. Compare and contrast muscles of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig.

The clam, crayfish, and pig all have muscles. Starfish do not really have muscles, they have a water vascular system. The clam and pig both have adductor muscles. The clams help it to open its shell where the pigs do not. The clam, crayfish, and pig all have hearts where the starfish does not. The crayfish and pig have abductor muscles. The pig has more complex muscles than all the other creatures.


V. Opening up the Pig

Task # 7
Homework:
1. Discuss the task of opening up the pig. Include the following in your discussion:
*Tools/Techniques that were successful in opening the pig
*Problems encountered in the procedure
*Biggest surprise when you looked inside
2. Compare and contrast procedures used in opening the clam, crayfish, starfish and pig.

When opening the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig we used different procedures. For the clam all we had to do was just cut through the adductor muscles and open the shells. For the starfish we just had to cut open one of the rays and pull the skin off. For the crayfish we just cut through the exoskeleton and pulled a piece of it off. For the pig we had to make a cut from the umbilical cord up to the throat then go the other way starting at the umbilical cord. The clam and starfish were the most alike because they were the easiest to open. The crayfish and the pig were alike because they were more difficult to open. The pig was the hardest over all though because it had a lot of muscles to cut through. The clam was the most different because we didn't have to cut through skin or major muscles to open it we just had to cut through the adductor muscles.

VI Digestive System

Task # 8
1. Take as many snapshots as you need to show the following structures associated with the upper digestive system. Include 5 of the following as labels on your diagram:
  • liver
  • gall bladder
  • esophagus
  • thyroid gland
  • pancreas
  • cardiac stomach
  • pyloric stomach
  • mesentery

The Liver
liver._labeled._helman._kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the liver. The liver is a large feature of the organs of the pig and underneath it lies the stomach.

The Stomach
stomach.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the stomach.

The two stomachs
7.kerr.stomach.png
This is a picture of the cardiac and pyloric stomachs.

The pancreas
7.kerr.pancreas.png
This is a picture of the pancreas.

The gull bladder
7.kerr.gull_bladder.png
This is a picture of the gull bladder.

2. Take snapshots to show the structures associated with the lower digestive system. Include 5 of the following as labels on your diagram:
  • pyloris
  • duodenum
  • small intestine
  • colon
  • caecum
  • rectum
  • anus
  • spleen
  • pancreas

The colon and spleen
colon_spleen.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a picture of the colon and spleen. The colon is also known as the large intestine.

The pancreas
pancreas.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is another photo of the pancreas. As you can see, it is located near the large intestine.

The small intestine
small_intestine.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the small intestine. The small intestine is located on the other side of the colon.

The caecum
_caecum.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the caecum. The caecum is the large part at the beginning of the large intestine.

3. Construct a chart of 10 structures or organs listed in #'s 1 and 2. Include 3 columns with the following headings: Structure, Description(what does the structure look like/), Function(s). Fill in the chart/conduct research if you need to.
Structure
Description
Function(s)
The Gall Bladder
This is a small, muscular, sac-like organ located near the
duodenum.
The gall bladder stores and releases bile into the small intestine.
The Esophogus
This is a membranous muscular tube.
The esophagus is the tube that passes food from the pharynx to the stomach. This tube joins the mouth and stomach.
The Thyroid Gland
This is a gland found in all vertebrates and it is a two lobed endocrine gland.
This gland produces various hormones.
Pancreas
The pancreas is located behind the stomach.
The pancreas produces enzymes and insuliin.
Duodenum
The Duodenum is a C shaped organ that runs from the stomach to jejunum.
Most digestion occurs in this region of the digestive tract.
Caceum
This is the large blind pouch that forms the beginning of the large intestine.
This controls the movement of digested food to the colon.
Rectum
The rectum is the lowest part of the large intestine.
This organ holds feces before they are excreted.
Anus
The anus is the opening at the end of the digestive system.
This is where the feces exit the body.
Spleen
The spleen is a large, highly vascular lymphoid organ.
This organ stores blood, disintegrates old blood cells, filters unknown substances from the blood and, produces lymphocytes.

4.Construct a chart including the following terms associated with the digestive system. Include 3 columns with the following headings: Structure, Description(what it looks like), Function(what it does).
  • mucosa
  • villi
  • lumen
  • rugae
  • meconium

Structure
Description
Function
mucosa
Linings of mostly endodermal origin.
They are involved in absorption and secretion.
villi
Villi are small projections that line the small intestine.
These increase the surfac area for absortion.
lumen
Inside space of a tubular structure such as an artery or
the intestine.
It allows space in a structure such as the intestine
so food can go in.
rugae
Rugae are the ridges located inside the stomach wall.
Rugae incrases the area for the releasing digestive enzymes.
meconium
Earliest stools of the fetal pig.
This is the newborns first excretion and it gets rid of wastes.

5. How many lobes does the liver have? Explain
The fetal pig's liver has 5 lobes. These lobes are the right lateral, left lateral, right central, left central and caudate.

6. What is the relationship between the liver and the gall bladder?
The relationship between the liver and the gall bladder is that they are connected. The liver creates certain biles and the gall bladder stores them.

7. Sequence the three parts of the small intestine? Differentiate between the function(s) of each section.
The first part of the small intestine is the duodenum, then comes the jejunum, then the ileum. The duodenum is the shortest part of the digestion, and the function is to let bile, enzymes, and food flow through the organs. Most of the chemical digestion occurs here. The jejunum might also break down the food, but it mostly just transports it. Last is the ileum which digests and absorbs whatever the jejunum did not.

8. Our colon looks like an upside down U. Compare to the pig's - What's the difference?
The difference between the pig's colon and our colon is that our colon looks like an upside down U where the pig's looks like a spiral.

Homework:
9. What is another name for the caecum? How has the caecum changed over time? Discuss evolutionary changes.
10. Differentiate between a complete and incorrect digestive system. Does the pig have a complete or an incomplete digestive system? How do you know?
11. Sequence the movement of food through the digestive system. Explain in your own words what happens to the food along the way.
12. Compare and contrast the digestive systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig.

Cheyenne Helman- The pig, clam, crayfish, and starfish digestive systems are all similar in many ways. For example, the clam, pig, starfish, and crayfish all have complete digestive systems. They all have a mouth and an anus. Different from the others, the starfish mouth is located in the center of its body; while the crayfish and pig's is located at the front of its body. All of these animals are capable of transporting food to the stomach through the mouth. Also slightly different from the others is the clam; it is a filter feeder and eats food by using its radula. All of these animals are similar because they all have an anus where the digested food exits. All of these animals also have a digestive gland, stomach and intestines. The digestive glands have digestive enzymes that help digest the food, to send through the intestines and out the anus. As you can see, the pig, clam, and starfish digestive systems are all similar in many ways.

VII. Respiratory System

Task # 9
1. Take enough photos to show the respiratory system and associated structures. Include 3 of the following labels on your photo:
  • epiglottis
  • larynx
  • pharynx
  • trachea
  • lobes of the lung

Epiglottis and Larynx
larynx.epiglottis.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the epiglottis and larynx. The epiglottis is at the top of the larynx and can also be seen through the mouth.

The trachea and larynx
trachea.larynx.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the trachea and the larynx. As you can see, the trachea is the long tube connected to the larynx. Not shown in this picture is the epiglottis which is also connected to the larynx.

2. Open up the larynx, take a photo of the exposed vocal cords. Label at least 2 exposed vocal cords.

The vocal cords
vocal.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the vocal cords. These cords are very small holes. In our pig, we found approximately five of these.

3. Create a 3 column chart with the following headings: Structure, Description(what it looks like), Function. Include 5 of the following structures in your chart. You are required to include trachea, bronchial tubes, and lobes of lungs.
  • epiglottis
  • larynx
  • vocal cord
  • trachea
  • lobes of lungs
  • bronchial tubes
  • alveoli
Structure
Description
Function
Trachea
The trachea is a thin walled tube of cartilaginious membranous tissue descending from the larynx to the bronchi and carrying air to the lungs.
Carries air to the lungs.
Bronchial Tubes
The bronchial tubes are two tubes that branch off from the trachea into each lung.
They carry air that has passed through the trachea into the smaller branches and cells
of the lungs.
Lobes of Lungs
The lobes of each pig are different. Usually, the right lobe has four lobes and the left usually has two or three.
They aid in respiration. Take in air and release carbon dioxide.
Epiglottis
The epiglottis is the thin elastic structure located at the root of the tongue.
It folds over the glottis to prevent food and liquids from entering the trachea.
Larynx
The larynx is the long hard structure attached to the trachea.
The larynx contains the vocal cords.

4. How many lobes make up each lung? Name the lobes.
The pigs right lung has four lobes. The apical, cardiac, diaphragmatic and the intermediate. The pigs left lung has three lobes.

5. How many vocal cords did you see inside the larynx? Check with two other groups and compare the number of vocal cords visible.
In our pig, we saw approximately five vocal cords. A few other groups found four and another found five.

Homework:
6. What is laryngigtis? What are the symptoms of this condition? What causes this condition?
7. What is bronchitis? What are the symptoms of this condition? What causes this condition?
8. Trace the flow of air through the respiratory system of the class mammalia.
9. What is the relationship between the respiratory system and the Eustachian tubes?
10. Compare and contrast the respiratory systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and fetal pig.

Cheyenne Helman- The respiratory systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and fetal pig are all very different. The clam, crayfish and starfish have gills and the fetal pig has lungs. In the pig, air travels through the body by going through the external nares, into the nasopharynx, then the glottis, and the larynx. The air then enters the trachea which will then take it to the lungs and later the heart. But this is all different for the clam, crayfish, and starfish. The gills in the crayfish are covered by the carapace. Oxygen is given to the crayfish through water running over the carapace. The clam, similar to the crayfish, has gills. One thing that makes the clam different is the fact that it's gills serve two purposes. They create a gas exhchange in the clams body and help to collect food since the clam is a filter feeder. The starfish, unlike the others, has a poorly developed respiratory system. It's gills help take in some oxygen. The spines on it's rays also help take in some oxygen. So as you can see, all these animal need and take in some oxygen, but they are all different becasue some have lungs and others have gills.

http://www.upt.pitt.edu/ntress/Bio1_Lab_Manual_New/fetal_pig_respiratory_intro.htm
http://www.upt.pitt.edu/ntress/Bio1_Lab_Manual_New/fetal_pig_respiratory_intro.htm


VIII Circulatory System

Task # 10
1. Take a photo of the dorsal side of the heart. Add 3 of the following labels to this view. Everyone is required to label the pulmonary vein and the aorta.
*pulmonary vein
*precaval and postcaval veins(also known as anterior vena cava and posterior vena cava)
*coronary sinus
*aorta

The heart
7.kerr.heart.png
This is a picture of the pulmonary vein and the aorta.

The heart
7.kerr.coronary_sinus.png
This is a picture of the coronary sinus.

2. Take a photo of the ventral view of the heart. Add 2 of the following labels to this view:
*coronary artery
*pulmonary artery
*ductus arteriosus

The ventral view
7.kerr.heart_artery.png
This is a picture of the ventral view of the heart. We have labeled the coronary and pulmonary arteries.

3. Take a photo of the cross section of the heart. Add the following labels:
*left ventricle
*right ventricle
*left atrium
*right atrium

The cross section
7.kerr.cross_section.png
This is a picture of the cross section of the heart. We have labeled the left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, and right ventricle.

4. Take another photo of the cross section of the heart. Add 3 of the following labels. Everyone is required to include 1 valve as a label.
*bicuspid
*tricuspid
*semilunar valve
*septum
*papillary muscles

The opened heart
semilunar.tricuspid.helman.kerr.jpg
This is the opened heart. In this photo, we have labeled semilunar valve and tricuspid valve. The semilunar valve is located approximately in the center of the heart and the tricuspid valve is on the left.

Continued...
bicuspid_valve.helman.kerr.jpg
This is another photo of the opened heart. In this one, we have labeled bicuspid valve. The bicuspid valve is located on the right side of the heart.

5. In your #3 photo trace the flow of blood through the heart by following these directions:
  • Use a red line to show the flow of oxygenated blood.
  • Use a blue line to show the flow of deoxygenated blood

Oxygenated Blood
7.kerr.oxygenated_blood_2.png
The oxygenated blood enters the heart through the pulmonary veins. Then it goes to the left atrium and then to the left ventricel and out through the aorta.

Deoxygenated Blood
7.kerr.deoxygenated_blood_2.png
The de-oxygenated blood enters the heart through the vena cava's. Then it goes into the right atrium and then to the right ventricle. Then it goes out through the pulmonary arteries.

6. Which ventricle has the greatest muscle mass?
The left ventricle has the greatest muscle mass.

7. To what chamber is the pulmonary artery connected?
The pulmonary artery is connected to the right ventricle of the heart.

8. To what chamber is the aorta connected to?
The aorta is connected to the left ventricle of the heart.

9. What is the largest artery in the body and contains blood under the greatest pressure?
The largest artery in the body that contains blodd under the greatest pressure is the aorta.

10. What is the difference between an artery and a vein?
An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. A vein is a blood vessel that carries blood back toward the heart. Arteries carry oxygenated blood and veins do not.

11. Compare and contrast the circulatory systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig.
The clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig are all alike in the aspect that the blood all starts in the heart in all of the creatures. The clam, crayfish, and starfish though have open circulatory systems due to the fact that they live in water. Having an open circulatory system means that fluid in a cavity called a hemocoel bathes the organs directly with oxygen and nutrients, and there is no distinction between blood and interstitial fluid. The pig has a closed circulatory system probably because it is a mammal. The pig is the only one that has arteries and veins that carry the blood throughout the whole body.

Homework:
12. How is heart rate determined?
13. How does the flow of blood through the fetal heart differ from the flow of blood through the adult heart?

Task # 11
1. Construct a chart with these column headings: Vessel(Artery or Vein) an Target Area
2. Add 8 of the following vessels to your chart:
  • carotid
  • subclavian
  • brachiocephalic
  • thoracic
  • mesenteric
  • renal
  • genital
  • iliac
  • femoral
  • pulmonary
  • coronary
  • jugular
  • umbilical
  • hepatic
  • innomina

Vessel (Artery or Vein)
Target Area
carotid
The head and the neck
renal
To the kidneys
femoral
The thighs
pulmonary
To the lungs
coronary
The heart (myocardium)
iliac
The pelvis
jugular
The head to the heart
genital
To the genital organs

3. Complete the chart by adding the target area of the body. This is the area that receives oxygenated blood and/or has deoxygenated blood carried away.

IX. Urogenital System

Task 12
1. Include a photo of either the female or male urogenital system. Place 3 of the following labels on the photo:
  • kidney
  • urinary bladder
  • ureter
  • urethra

The Kidney and Ureter
kidney.ureter.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the female pig's urogenital system. In this photo, we have labeled the kidney and the ureter.

The Urinary Bladder
urinary_bladder._helman.kerr.jpg
This is another photo of the female pig's urogenital system. In this photo, we have labeled the urinary bladder.

2. Take a photo of the female urogenital system, then label the first three terms in the list and one of the remaining three:
  • ovary
  • oviduct
  • uterus
  • uterine horn
  • cervix
  • birth canal

The Female Urogenital System
ovaries._uterus.horn._helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the urogenital system. As you can see, we have labeled the ovaries, uterus and the left uterine horn.

The Female Urogenital System (continued)
oviducts.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is also a picture of the female urogenital system. In this photo we have labeled the oviducts.

3. Take a photo of the male urogenital system. Include the first three label, then one more of the remaining three labels:
  • testis
  • vas deferens
  • epididymis
  • seminal vesicles
  • prostrate
  • scrotum

The scrotum
7.kerr.scrotum.png
This is a picture of the male urogenital system. We have labeled the scrotum. The picture was taken by Anna Monyak and Heidi Rodgers.

Testis, Vas Deferens, and the Epididymis
7.kerr.male_parts.png
This is a picture of the male urogenital system. We have labeled the testis, epididymis, and vas deferens. The picture was taken by Anna Monyak and Heidi Rodgers.

4. Take a photo of the cross section of a dissected kidney. Add the following labels to your diagram:
  • cortex
  • medulla

The Kidney
cortex.medulla.labeled.helman.kerr.jpg
This is a photo of the dissected kidney. In this photo we have labeled the medulla and the cortex.

5. Construct a glossary of urogenital terms. Add a definition that tells the function of the structure/organ. Include the terms listed in numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4.

Glossary of terms by Kyrie and Cheyenne


6. Why are reproductive and excretory systems studied together?
The reproductive and excretory systems are studied together because the organs are related to each other and located in the same area.
7. What is the main purpose of the excretory system?( Do not say for excretion).
The main purpose of the excretory system is to maintain homeostasis. It gets rid of chemicals and wastes in your body.
8. What is the main purpose of the reproductive system?( Do not say for reproduction).
The main purpose of the reproductive system is to produce offspring so the species does not become extinct.
9. Trace the path of liquid waste through the body of the pig to the external environment.
The liquid waste goes to the kidney's first. Then the kidney's drain the wastes into the ureter. They go to the urinary bladder and stay here until they it gets full, then they are excreted outside of the body.
10. Trace the path of the eggs through the female reproductive system.
The eggs start in the ovaries. Then they go to the fallopian tubes or oviduct to the uterine horn. It would join the sperm for fertilization here and then it would travel to the uterus to develop.
11. Trace the path of the sperm through the male reproductive system.
Sperm starts in the testes where they are created. Then it goes to the epididymis to be stored. Then it goes to the vas deferenes. They travels to the prostate gland and finally reach the ejaculatory duct where it is mixed with semen. The penis transports the sperm to the urethera of the female.
12. What system do the terms listed in numbers 1 and 4 belong to?
The system that the terms listed in numbers 1 and 4 belong to is the excretory system.
13. What system do the terms in numbers 2 and 3 belong to?
The system that the terms listed in numbers 2 and 3 belong to is the the reproductive system.
14. The adrenal gland is closely associated with the kidney. Describe, state the gland's function and list the system that the gland belongs to.
The adrenal gland is kind of star shaped and is located on top of the kidney's. They are responsible for regulating the stress response through the synthesis of corticosteroids and catecholamines, which includes cortisol and adrenaline.
15. Compare and contrast the excretory systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig.
The clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig all have an excretory system, but they go about excretion in different ways. The anus of the clam is located at the end of the body and the pig's is located below its tail on the posterior end of the body. The crayfish's anus is located similarly to the pig (posterior end of body). The starfish's is located on the central disk. Also the crayfish has excretory glands. The crayfish and pig are most similar because they have more organs than the other two creatures. The pig is the most complex due to the fact that it has kidney's and other organs.
16. Compare and contrast the reproductive systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig.
The reproductive systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig are similar but yet very different. The clam, starfish, and crayfish are alike because they all have reproductive glands. The pig's reproductive system is more complex. The male and female have different reproductive organs. The female pig has ovaries, and the male pig has testes. The female has the egg inside of her body and the fetus develops inside of her body. All of these creatures have gonads though. The starfish and clam fertilize their eggs outside of their bodies. The starfish and clam reproduce in similar ways as do the pig and the crayfish.