External Anatomy of a Clam:


clam_picture_butler.png
This is the exterior picture of a clam. This means before the clam has been opened. As you may have noticed,
I have located some parts on the clam and labeled them.These parts are the umbo,
hinge ligament, dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, growth ring,
valve.


Description
Structure/Position
Function(s)
valve
two hard outer
coverings of the
clam
on the outside of
the organism;
some call them shells
Protects the clam
from predators and
also allows the clam
to open and close
ventral
the front part of the clam; where
it opens up
shows the very front of
the clam
general name for the
frontpart of the clam
that opens up
growth
ring
indents located on the shells
of the clam that show the age
of the clam
located all around the
area of the clam;
starting at the dorsal
side of the clam
shows the clams age
from year to year
posterior
shows the opposite area from
head -1
locates the area of the
clam that is towards
the anus
general term for the end
of an organism-1
anterior
the part of the clam that shows
the head-1
to the front of the clam
a general name for the
area of the clam that is
more to the front
dorsal
if i was looking at the clam
i would tell you it is at the top
which would be the side with
the bump or umbo and ligament
hinge
the area in which is
closest to the umbo
and ligament hinge
the general name for
the side that is working
to open and close the
clam-1
hinge
ligament
mainly on the inside of
the shell although
some of the ligament can
be seen on the external
area of the clam-1
located inside of the
clam except for a small
amount located on
the external part of the
shells
hold the two valves
together and also aids
with tension when the
adductor muscles relax
umbo
holds the shells
together when
needed and releases
the sides when wanted-1
located on the dorsal
side of the clam
large muscle that holds
together the two shells
of the clam-1


Open Clam:


open_clam_.png
Here is a picture that shows the internal anatomy of a clam. This means the
clam has indeed been opened up by cutting muscles that hold the clam closed.
I have also labeled the foot, posterior adductior muscle, anterior adductor muscle, gills,
and mantle cavity.


Open Clam Showing Mantle:

clam_with_mantle_open.jpg
This picture is very similar to the one I have above it. I am also showing the internal
parts of the clam. In this picture you can see more inside the mantle of the clam.
You may see the same features in this picture as you saw in the one above.
Structure
Description
Functions
anterior
adductor
muscle
muscles that work with
the posterior adductor
muscle that open and
close the shell-1
muscles that aid in
opening and closing
the shells of the clam
posterior
adductor
muscle
muscles that work with
the anterior adductor
muscle that open-1
and close the shell
muscles that aid in
opening and closing the
shells of the clam
mantle
the paper-thin like
covering that surrounds
all of the soft body.
area that holds air,
water and organs-1
mantle
cavity
a cavity that surrounds
the organs-1/2
the area holds air, water,
and organs-1
foot
holds important organs
like the whole digestive
process of the clam-1
used for moving and
attaching itself to areas
gills
area that aids the
clam in able to
being able to breathe-1
filters water in
order to produce
oxygen so the clam
can live

Palps:

palps.jpg

As you can see in this picture, I have located the Palps. They are
pointed out by the small probe that is inserted into the palps. See table
for structure, function, and description.

Anus:

anus.jpg

Located in this photo is the anus of this particular clam. I am using
a probe to point where it is located. See table for structure, description,
and function.

Reproductive gland:

reproductive_organs.jpg

Located in the foot of the clam is the reproductive gland. In this picture,
a probe is locating the gland for you. See table for function, descripition, and structure.

Digestive Gland:

digestive_gland.jpg

Located by the probe I am using, is the digestive gland. This is also located
inside of the clam.See table for structure, function and description.

Mouth:

mouth_picture.jpg


This is the mouth of the clam. This is located by the probe. It is near the palps in the clam.
This organ is also in the foot. See table for structure function and description.


    • I was unable to capture pictures of the clams esophagus and stomach due to the difficulty of my clam drying up.
Instead of capturing my own, I have found pictures of these parts on a clam and they can be located at the following sites..

Stomach:


<ref>http://www.assateague.com/nt-bival.html<ref>
As you can see in the picture, this organ, the stomach, is located on the
left side of the clam. It is near the mouth and palps.
The stomach is not too big and not too small in comparison to the other organs.

Esophagus:


<ref>http://bio.classes.ucsc.edu/bio136/LabManual/Mytilus-Venus/Ven_dig.jpg<ref>
The esophagus is located on the left side of the picture. If you can see the small tube
that runs under the labial palp, that is the esophagus. This small tube transports the
food to from the mouth to the rest of the digestion process.

structure
description
function
palps
located near mouth;
shaped like a lima
bean
organ located near the mouth
used to guide food towards
and into the mouth
mouth
near the palps;
small in size-1
where food goes into in order
to be properly digested.
anus
small area opposite
from the mouth-1
where wastes from the digestive
process can be excreted.
reproductive
gland
located in the soft
body-1
allows the organism to
reproduce-1 how???
digestive
gland
green colored gland
used for food digestion after
passing the mouth
esophagus
a way for food to pass
from the mouth to
stomach and digestive
gland; almost like what
we would call a throat
goes through this tube from the
mouth in order to be digested
then passed into the stomach
stomach
small area in the clam
where food is stored.-1
food will store here after passing
through the mouth, esophagus,
and digestive gland

***There was also a difficultly obtaining pictures of the heart.the same
reason I have previously stated. I have done the same thing as above.
I have located pictures of the follwing structures:

Ostia:


I am unable to locate a picture of an ostia.

Intestine:


<ref>http://www.assateague.com/nt-bival.html<ref>
The intestine is a very important part of the clam's organs.
Without the intestine, the clam would be unable to excrete waste. The intestine is the last organ
before the anus that carries waste through the body in order to be excreted. In the picture, the intestine
is located from the left to the right side of the clam. it travels through the middle.


Pericardial Cavity:


<ref>http://bioserv.fiu.edu/~biolab/labs/2003/lab%2010%20-%20clam%20anatomy.pdf<ref>
On the picture you of the Pericardial Cavity you will see a
label that says Pericaridum. These two words mean the
same organ. This cavity filters water while holding the
heart. It is located in the third picture down on the dorsal side of the clam.


Heart:


<ref>http://www.assateague.com/nt-bival.html<ref>
The heart is located on sort of the top of the the clam near the umbo.
The main job of the heart is to pump blood throughout the body of the clam.
This ensures the survival of the clam's cirulatory system. The clam has an
open circulatory system.

structure
description
function
ostia
cavity that is
protecting the
heart-1
walls of the heart
that are used for-1
filtering water
intestine
major organ that
a clam needs in order
to survive-1
wastes go into this
body part before the clam
excretes it through the anus
pericardial
cavity
contains the heart-1
small cavity that
holds the heart
heart
the area in the
clam that is used
for pumping blood-1
pumps blood
to several parts
of the body in order
for the clam to stay
alive

Resources:

<ref>http://www.thefreedictionary.com/<ref>
<ref>http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/invertebrates/giant-clam.html<ref>
<ref>http://wwwbio200.nsm.buffalo.edu/labs/tutor/Clam/<ref>

Butler Clam Dissection Follow-up

Butler Clam Dissection Journal