Pre-Activity

Answer the following prior to the start of this assignment (for homework):

1.Define the following terms:
  • Autotrophs- Autotrophs are the organism that use simple inorganic molecules to produce complex organic compounds.
  • Photoautotrophs- Photoautotrophs are organisms that carry out photosynthesis.
  • Heterotrophs- Heterotrophs are organisms that have to have organic substrates in order to obtain its chemical energy for its life cycle.
  • Phagocytosis- Phagocytosis is the cellular process of the cell membrane engulfing solid particles to form a phagosome internally.
  • Parasitism - Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship between two different organisms.
  • Alternation of Generations- Alternation of Generations is a term that describes the life cycle of plants, fungi, and protists.
2. Complete the following chart as to the mode of nutrition of the following groups:
Group

Photoautotrophic (yes or no)

Heterotrophic (yes or no). State ingestion or parasitism if yes.

Example organism
chlorophyta
yes

no

green algea
ciliophora
no

yes, because the ciliophora feeds on bacteria and other particles. An example for this is that it feeds on almost algae.

fresh or saltwater protozoans


oomycota
no
yes, because oomycota is parasitic to potatoes, redwoods, and grapes.

fungi

myxomycota
no
yes, because myxomycota is a parasitic to plants.
slime molds

phaeophyta
yes

no
brown algae
rhodophyta
yes

no
red algae
3. Define the function of the following including an example:
  • Pseudopods-- Pseudopods are also known as false feet and are a special way that amoebas change their form so they can move.

  • Cilia-- Hair-like projection on the surfaces of some cells and of certain organisms. An example of the cilia are found on protozoans that use them for movement.

  • Flagella-- This is also called an undulipodium it is a long, slender extension of certain cells or unicellular organisms used mainly for movement. This is also known as yeast. In protists, they are made up of microtubules surrounded by the plasma membrane and enable the cells to move in a whip-like fashion. An example of a flagellated bacterium is the Helicobacter phylori; which is found in humans. It uses its flagella to canon ball itself through the mucus to reach the stomach epithelium.


Activity 1

For the following activities, we will view the Amoeba, Euglena, Paramecium, Spirostomum, Stentor, Volvox.


  1. Identify the taxonomic group (Phylum) that each of the above belong to.
  2. Identify 2-3 economic uses of the protista from those listed above. Please explain.
  3. View the protozoa above, using a wet mount slide. Complete the table as shown below. Take a picture with the moticam. Label with the structures discussed in the table (hint: research the protist to identify what you should be seeing.)

Protozoan
Cell shape
Structure/method of locomotion
Other cellular features seen
Unicellular or multicellular?
Interesting observations
Amoeba
The cell shape of an
amoeba is constantly
changing.

They move with their pseudopods.
Other cellular features of the amoeba are the
membrane and the endoplasm.

Unicellular
The amoeba didn't stay in one spot, it moved a lot.
Euglena
The cell shape of the Euglena is
cylindrical.
They move by using their flagellum, which is
a whip like structure.

Other cellular features of the euglena are the eyespot
ad the cytoplasm.

Unicellular
The euglena has a eyespot
on it.

Paramecium
The paramecium is shaped like the sole of a shoe.
Parameciums move by using the cilia
which covers their body.

Other cellular features of the
paramecium are the micronucleus and the contractile vacuole.

Unicellular
When the parmecium moves, it moves in a spiral motion.
Spirostomum
The cell shape of the spirostomum
is long and skinny.

Spirostomum moves with its cilia which
covers its body.

Other cellular features of spirostomum are cilia and
membranelles.

Unicellular
The spirostomum is very big compared to the rest of the protists, and it is long. It is also
neat how it contracts, so its not always just a long straight protist.

Stentor
The cell shape of stentor is rectangular, then it goes down
into a point.

Stentor moves by using the cilia which
covers its body.

Other cellular features of the stentor are cilia and cytoplasm.
Unicellular
Stentor has many cilia which it can use to move, but it also uses it to catch its prey.
Volvox
The cell shape of
volvox is spherical.

Volvox moves by using its flagellum, which
is a whip like structure.


Other cellular features seen are the neucleus and the cytoplasmic strands.
Multicellular
Volvox clumps together to form colonies.

Amoeba


amoebalabeled.png
This is a photo of an amoeba. The phylum of the amoeba is Tubulinea.
Non-living amoebas make up a lot of the chalk and limestone on Earth. This is an economic use because products are made out of chalk and limestone and then sold.


Euglena


andersoneula.png
This is a photo of Euglena. The phylum of the euglena is Pyrrophyta. Red or green Euglena's bloom in lakes. Euglena is used by scientists in studies. This helps the economy, becuase they are sold to the scientists that are studying them.


Paramecium


andersonparmlab.png
The phylum of the paramecium is Ciliophora. Parameciums are used for research. This is useful to the economy becuause if researchers have to buy these in order to do research on them, then they are giving money to the economy. Some parameciums eat other protists. This is an economic use because the economy does not have to pay for food for them.

Spirostomum

andersonspirlab.png
The phylum of spirostomum is Ciliophora. Spirostomum is used to make magnets and silicon dioxide. This is helpful to the economy, because magnets and products with silicon dioxide are sold.

Stentor

andersonstenlab.png
This is a photo of stentor. The phylum of stentor is Ciliophora. Stentor is bioluminescent, therefore it is
an attraction of tourists. Stentor produces a toxin that is deadly to fish. Tourists help the economy, because they pay money to visit certain areas, so when they go to see the stentor they will probably be spending some money to get there. Also, fish dying is not useful to the economy because without the fish people wouldn't be able to spend their money buying it.

Volvox

andersonmvol.png
The phylum of volvox is Chlorophyta. Volvox is used for evolutionary studies. Volvox is a food source for aquatic animals. Evolutionary studies are useful to the economy, because when new information is found, books are usually published, then people buy them. Volvox being a food source for aquatic animals helps the economy because nothing else has to be purchased to feed these animals.

Activity 2


Hydra, and Euglena (these organisms are not protists, but are interesting to observe and study)

1. State the phyla of hydra-- The phyla is Cnidaria.

2. State the phyla and class of euglena-- The phyla is Pyrropyta and the class is Euglenoidea

3. View a wet slide(without cover slip-stay on low power) of hydra using a concave slide. Take your probe and gently touch the tentacles and base of the hydra. Turn the light down on your microscope to check for the release of structures. Note the reaction of the organism. Take a picture using the moticam. Label at least three structures. -- When Shannon poked the hydra it almost resembled a turtle by getting its legs getting smaller as if a turtle tucks its head in its shell when in danger.
Hydra
anderhydra.png

4. View a wet slide of the euglena using the concave slide(stay on low power). Observe body movement internally and externally. Gently probe the euglena to observe reaction to stimuli. Take a picture using moticam. Label at least three structures.
Euglena
andersone2.png

5. Place the hydra and the euglena on the same concave wet slide. Observe the reaction of both species. Is there a predator-prey relationship? Explain-- The Hydra is mostly always the predator and in this case the Euglena was the prey. Shannon and I saw the hydra eat its prey; the euglena.



Phyla/Class


Traits of Phyla/Class


Traits of Phyla/Class


Reaction to Stimuli


Predator/Prey Relationship


Interesting Obsevations
Hydra
Phyla- Cnidaria
Class- Hydrozoa

Cnidaria-
they have two
main cell layers

Hydrozoa-
they live mostly
in saltwater

It became smaller when touched by the probe, and when mixed with the euglena it ate it.


Predator


The Hydra
feed on the euglena

Euglena

Phyla- Pyrrophyta
Class- Euglenoidea

Pyrrophyta-
they are motile cells with
two flagellae, usually dissimilar.


Euglenoidea-
The long
flagellum has
with numerous delicate hairs

When mixed with the hydra it tried to swim away from hydra.


Prey


The Euglena was helpless in the act
of being the prey.