Part I: External Anatomy


A and B:

The Outside
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This picture shows the oustide parts of the clam.


C. External Anatomy Chart

Structure/Position
Description
Function(s)
Umbo
The bump on the top of
the clam.
an inward projection of the tympanic membrane of the ear
Hinge ligament
an elastic structure that unites the two valves of a mussel
The hinge ligament hinges the valves together.
Ventral
The bottom side of the
clam.
the opening where the palps, foot, and mouth help the clam
Dorsal
the back or top of the mussel;the hinge area
this helps locate the parts on the clam
Anterior
The anterior side of the clam is the smaller side of the shell.
this is where you can find the foot and the mouth
Posterior
The posterior side of the clam is the side that is bigger.
where the siphons are found
Growth Ring
the rings on a mussel's shell
they grow larger as the soft clam in the inside does
Valve
the right or left half of a bivalve shell
They protect the mantle and the internal organs.

Part II: Opening up the clam

Mantle Cavity
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This picture shows the Mantle Cavity of our clam.

Inside the Clam
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This shows the anterior adductor muscle, posterior adductor muscle, mantle, mantle cavity, foot, and gills of the our clam. The mantle is showing both valves and the mantle cavity is showing the shell underneath the yellow.


Structure
Description
Function(s)
Anterior adductor muscle
The anterior adductor muscle is
a tough dark yellowish muscle.
This muscle holds left side of
the clam's shell together.
Posterior adductor muscle
The posterior adductor muscle is also
a dark yellowish muscle.
This muscle holds the right side
of the clam's shell together.
Mantle
The mantle is a dark yellowish film that
covers the inside of the clam's shell.
The mantle protects the soft clam inside
and as a respiratory system.
Mantle cavity
The mantle cavity is the space between
the mantle and the inside of the clam's shell.
The cavity includes digestive, excretory, and
reproductive systems that empty into the mantle
cavity to be exited out the clam
Foot
The foot of a clam is a dark grayish color. The
foot has a wavy top.
this digs into the sand for protection
Gills
It is smooth and thin
these supply the clam with oxygen
from the water

Part III: Dissection of the Foot


Dissecting the Clam
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In this clam it shows the palps, mouth, esophagus, stomach, digestive gland, intestine, anus, and reproductive gland.


Structure
Description
Function(s)

palps
Flap-like structures
these move the food into the mouth
mouth
Located at the anterior of the clam
the palps pass food through this
esophagus
located below the mouth
swallows the food and helps it breathe
stomach
Located near the digestive glands
where the food that the mussel eats is digested
digestive gland
Greenish texture that surrounds the stomach
digests the food that the mussel eats
intestine
Tube-like structure
food comes through here before entering the anus
anus
the flexible passage way where the clams
waste is excreted
where the clam's waste is passed through
reproductive gland
It is thick and has much protection
allows the mussel to reproduce




Part IV: Pericardial Cavity

Heart Of the Clam
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The clam shows the heart with its ostia, the pericardial cavity, and the intestine.

Structure
Description
Function(s)
heart
a organ that is
tube-like
the blood circulates through here
pericardial cavity
Located near the dorsal of the clam
and is covered with thin membrane
in this cavity it contains the heart
intestine
A tube that is located near the anus
waste goes through this before entering the anus
ostia
a small gapping hole
opening for water to enter body