IV: Muscles
Task # 6

1. Create a 4 column chart with the following headings: Muscle Type, Description("what the muscle looks like"), Function and Example.
Include the following muscle types in the chart:
  • cardiac
  • smooth
  • striated
Muscle
Muscle Type
Description
Function
Example
Cardiac
Cross Segment
Have segments of muscle going one way and then the other
Propel blood through the body
Heart walls
Smooth
Spindle-shaped
Pink muscle with swirled oval shapes in it
Can contract and relax
Tunical media layer of small and large arteries
Straited
Combined Muscle fibers
Forms of muscle fibers combined into parallel fibers
make up muscles
skeletal muscle

2. Create a glossary of terms associated with muscles. Along with the term include its definition and/or significance in the understanding of muscles. Include the following terms:
  • joint
  • extensor-
  • flexor
  • origin
  • insertion
  • belly
  • tendon
  • fascia
  • antagonistic pairs
  • adductor
  • abductor

Glossary

Joint-Is where two bones meet to make motion of the body
Extensor-A muscle the extends or straightens a limb or joint.
Flexor-A muscles that bends or flexes a joint.
Origin-The place where a muscle is attahced to another bone or other muscle in the pig
Insertion-Point of attachment of a skeletal muscle to the bone.
Belly-The underside of a body
Tendon-A band of tough fiberous tissue that connects a muscle with a bony attachment
Fascia-A sheet of fiberous tissue enveloping or binding muscles, organs or other soft structures
Antagonistic Pairs- Muscles that work together to complete a coordinated movement (one contracts and one extends)
Adductor-A muscle that draws a limb toward the midline of the body
Abductor-A muscle that draws a body part, such as a finger, arm, or toe, inward toward the median axis of the body or of an extremity
3. Take a photo of the exposed abdominal muscles. Label 2 of the following:
  • External oblique
  • Internal oblique
  • Transversus
GodoPascuzzoabdomenmuscles2.JPG
4. Take a photo of the circular muscle in the head. Label the muscle.

GodoPascuzzoHeadmuscle2.JPG
5. You are required to do either part a. or part b. of the the following:
a. Take a photo showing a pair of antagonistic pair of muscles in the front leg. (Make sure that you have separated the muscles to expose them). Label the muscles shown.
b.Take a photo of an antagonistic pair of muscles in the back leg using a ventral view. (Make sure that you have separated the muscles to expose them). Label the muscles shown.


Part B


GodoPascuzzobacklegAmuscles2.JPG
6. Separate, then take a photo of 2 different muscles that control the movement of the shoulder. Label the two muscles.
Members of the pig tutorial group are required to show 3 different muscles labeled.
GodoPascuzzoShoulder2.JPG
7. Separate, then take a photo of 3 different muscles that control the movement of the hip. Label the three muscles.
Members of the pig tutorial group are required to show 5 muscles labeled.
GodoPascuzzoHip2.JPG
8. Separate and take a photo of an adductor muscle in the hind leg. Label the muscle.
Members of the tutorial group are required to separate and label 5 different muscles on the ventral side of the pig.
GodoPascuzzoAbductorM2.JPG
9. Separate and take a photo of an abductor muscle in the hind leg. Label the muscle.
GodoPascuzzoHipAbductorM.JPG
10. Create a 4 column chart including 12 muscles found in the fetal pig. Column headings include: Muscle, Origin, Insertion, Function. Include a wide variety of muscles from all parts of the pig. Members of the muscles tutorial group are required to include 21 muscles in the chart.
Muscle
Origin
Insertion
Function
Deltoideus
Spine and acromion
Deltoid ridge of humerus
Extends and rotates humerus laterad
Supraspinatus
Supraspinous fossa
Greater tuberosity of humerus
Extends humerus
Infraspinatus
Infraspinous fossa
Greater tuberosity of humerus
Rotates humerus
Adductor Femoris
Pubis and Ischium
Shaft of Femur
Adducts and Extends Thigh
Gluteus Maximus
Posterior Gluteal Line
Gluteal Tuberosity
A main abductor muscle
Gluteus Medius
ilium
Greater Trochanter
Abducts Thigh
Tensor Fasciae Latae
ilium and Fascia of Gluteus Medius
Fascia Latae
Extends Leg
External Oblique
Cuadal Ribs and Lumbodorsal Fascia
Aponeuronsis into the Linnea Alba
Compresses Abdomen
Internal Oblique
Lumbodorsal Fascia and Cural Arches between Crest of Ilium and Pubis
Aponeurosis to linea alba
Compresses Abdomen
Transversus Abdominus
Lumbodorsal Fascia
Linnea Alba
Supports Abdomonal Viscera
Rectus Abdominus
Tubercle of Pubis
Cartilage Ribs
Maintains Vertibreal Arch Flexibility
Triceps Brachii
Greater to Tuberosity
Olecranon of Ulna
Extends Antebarchium

11. Homework: Discuss your study of the muscles. Include the following in your discussion:
  • Tool/techniques that were successful in separating the muscles
  • Hardest part of studying muscles
  • The main function(s) of muscles
12. Compare and contrast muscles of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig.


Similarities


A clam uses its muscles to open and close it's shell. A Pig uses some of its muscles to extend body parts like the clam's shell.

A crayfish uses muscles to close and open its pinchers, much like the pigs muscles that are used to open and close its jaw.

A starfish moves around with all of its muscular tube feet. The pig uses many muscles to move its legs to allow it to move around just like the starfish uses many muscular tube feet.


Differences



A clam uses one muscular foot to move but a pig uses many muscles to move its legs.

A starfish has tube feet that can suction to a surface and the pig has no muscles with that abillity.

A crayfish has muscles in its legs ment for quick movements to escape from predators underwater. A pig does not have muscles ment for very quick movement like the crayfish.