IV: Muscles
Task # 6

1. Create a 4 column chart with the following headings: Muscle Type, Description("what the muscle looks like"), Function and Example.
Include the following muscle types in the chart:
Type
Description
Function/Example
Cardiac

red with white strips and little black dots everywhere
Function-relys on an ample blood supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products.
Example-is on the walls of the heart

Smooth
pink with white circles
Function-maintain organ dimentions against forces, cells are fastened by adherens junctions
Example-found within tunica media layer of large and small arteries and viens

Striated
purple strips along side of white strips weaving through each other
Function-a form of fibers that are combined into parallel fibers
Example-attaches to tendons


2. Create a glossary of terms associated with muscles. Along with the term include its definition and/or significance in the understanding of muscles. Include the following terms:
  • joint
  • extensor - to straighten joint increasing the angle at the joint
  • flexor - to bend at a joint decreasing the angle at the joint Example: elbow or knee joint
  • origin - Where the muscle is anchored to the bone
  • insertion - attached to the bone to be moved
  • belly - fleshy central portion
  • tendon - the ends are attached to the bone by this narrow band of connective tissue
  • fascia - divided into two 1. deep fascia- fine transparent connective tissue which binds adjacent muscles 2. superficial fascia - tougher and more fibrous connects the skin to the muscles below.
  • antagonistic pairs - while muscle will cause a structure to mov in one direction, the antagonist will cause it to move in the opposite directio
  • adductor - to move appendage toward sagittal midline Example:lowering arms frm shoulder to rest at sides
  • abductor - to move appendage away from sagittal midline Example: raising arms from rest to shoulder level
3. Take a photo of the exposed abdominal muscles. Label 2 of the following:

transversus_tyler_and_taylor.png
4. Take a photo of the circular muscle in the head. Label the muscle.
dtpigjmuscle.png

5. You are required to do either part a. or part b. of the the following:

b.Take a photo of an antagonistic pair of muscles in the back leg using a ventral view. (Make sure that you have separated the muscles to expose them). Label the muscles shown.
dtpighindleg.png

6. Separate, then take a photo of 2 different muscles that control the movement of the shoulder. Label the two muscles.
Members of the pig tutorial group are required to show 3 different muscles labeled.
mhshoulder.png

7. Separate, then take a photo of 3 different muscles that control the movement of the hip. Label the three muscles.
Members of the pig tutorial group are required to show 5 muscles labeled.


dthindleg2.png

10. Create a 4 column chart including 12 muscles found in the fetal pig. Column headings include: Muscle, Origin, Insertion, Function. Include a wide variety of muscles from all parts of the pig. Members of the muscles tutorial group are required to include 21 muscles in the chart.
Muscle
Origin
Insertion
Function
Gastrocnemius
Lateral Epicondyle and fascia of fenur
Tendon of achilles to calcaneus
Extends the foot
Circular Muscle(Masseter)
Zygomatic arch
Coronoid fossa
Elevates the mandible
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Lateral distal humerus
Fifth metacarpal digits
Extends wrist
Adductor Femoris
Pubis and ischium
shaft of femur
Adducts and extends thigh
External Oblique
Cuadal Ribs and lumbodorsal fascia
Aponeurosis to linea alba
Supports abdominal viscera; Compresses abdomen
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Lateral distal humerus
Fifth metacarpal digits
Extends wrist
Triceps Brachii(caput longus)
Proximal 2/3 of humerus and axillary border of scapula
Olecranon of ulna
Extends antebrachium
Triceps Brachii(caput laterale)
Greater tuberosity of humerus
Olecranon of ulna
Extends antebrachium
Tensor Fascia Latae
Ilium and fascia of gluteus medius
Fascia latae
Extends thigh
Internal Oblique
Lumbodorsal fascia and crural arches between crest of ilium and pubis
Aponeurosis to linea alba
Supports abdominal Viscera; Compresses abdomen
Bicepts Femoris
Bicepts Femoris
Tibia and patella
Extends thigh and flexes shank
Transversus Abnominis
Lumbodorsal Fascia
Linea Alba
Supports abdominal Viscera; Compresses abdomen


11. Homework: Discuss your study of the muscles. Include the following in your discussion:
  • Tool/techniques that were successful in separating the muscles
  • Hardest part of studying muscles
  • The main function(s) of muscles
12. Compare and contrast muscles of the clam, crayfish, starfish, and pig.
Comparing the muscular systems of the clam, crayfish, starfish and pig showed us many like and unlike characteristics of them. One main similarity between all of these organisms is that they have muscles and that the muscles help the organism move. The muscles also help the organism accomplish tasks such as, the clam digging, the pig walking, the starfish to move its extremities, and the crayfish pinching its items in its claws. A large difference we found in the organisms muscles that the pig and clam had more distinct and larger muscles. The crayfish and starfish muscles were less obvious and harder to find.